Food additives will be substances that turn out to be a piece of a food item when they are included during processing or making of that food. Food additives are chemicals added to nourishments to keep them new or to upgrade their shading, flavour or composition. They might incorporate nourishment colourings, flavour enhancers (Fennema, 1996).
Most food additives are recorded on the item name, alongside different fixings, in a diving request by weight. Here and there, the added substance is spelt out in full. At different times, it is spoken to by a code number: for instance, cochineal might be recorded as Colouring; sodium sulphite might be appeared as preservative. For a considerable length of time, fixings have served valuable capacities in an assortment of food. Our predecessors utilized salt to save meats and fish, added herbs and flavors to enhance the kind of nourishments, saved organic product with sugar, and cured cucumbers in a vinegar arrangement (McCann et al., 2007).
There are a huge number of fixings used to make nourishments. The Food and Drug Administration, FDA keeps up a rundown of more than 3000 fixings in its information base “Everything Added to Food in the United States”, a considerable lot of which we use at home each day e.g., sugar, heating pop, salt, vanilla, yeast, flavors and colors ( Downs, 2008).
Still, a few buyers have worries about added substances since they might see the long, new names and consider them complex synthetic mixes. Indeed, every nourishment we eat – whether a just-picked strawberry or a custom made treat – is comprised of concoction intensifies that decide flavor, shading, surface and supplement esteem. All food additives are painstakingly managed by government powers and different worldwide associations to guarantee that nourishments are sheltered to eat and are precisely named.
Why Are Food and Colour Ingredients Added to Food?
Here are a few reasons why food additives are added to food:
- To Maintain or Improve Safety and Freshness: Preservatives moderate item waste created by mold, air, microbes, organisms or yeast. Notwithstanding keeping up the nature of the nourishment, they control tainting that can bring about foodborne disease, including life-undermining botulism. One gathering of additives – cell reinforcements – forestalls fats and oils and the food containing them from getting to be rotten or building up an off-flavor. They likewise avoid cut new natural products, for example, apples from turning cocoa when presented to air.
- To improve or maintain Nutritional Value: Vitamins and minerals are added to numerous food to compensate for those ailing in a man’s eating routine or lost in handling, or to upgrade the healthful nature of a nourishment. Such stronghold and enhancement has lessened lack of healthy food in the U.S. furthermore, around the world. All items containing included supplements must be suitably marked.
- Enhance Taste, Texture and Appearance: Spices, normal and fake flavors, and sweeteners are added to improve the essence of food. Nourishment hues keep up or enhance appearance. Emulsifiers, stabilizers and thickeners give food the composition and consistency customers anticipate. Raising operators permit heated products to ascend processed preparing. A few food additives control the causticity and alkalinity of food, while different fixings keep up the taste and advance of nourishments with decreased fat substance (Fennema, 1996).
“Direct” food additive are frequently added during processing to:
- Include supplements
- Process or set up the food
- Keep the food fresh
- Make the food appealing
Direct food additives might be man-made or common.
Common food additives include:
- Herbs or flavors to add flavours to food
- Vinegar for pickling food
- Salt, to save meats
“Circuitous” food additives will be substances that might be found in processed food or after it is handled. They were not utilized or set as a part of the nourishment deliberately. These added substances are available in little sums in the last item (McCann et al., 2007).
Types of food additives
The different types of food additive and their uses include:
- Anti-caking agents – stop ingredients from becoming lumpy.
- Antioxidants – anti oxidizer
- Artificial sweeteners – sweetener
- Emulsifiers – anti-clotting agent.
- Food acids – maintain the acid level.
- Colours – enhance colour.
- Humectants – keep foods moist.
- Flavours – flavor agent.
- Flavour enhancers – increase the power of a flavour.
- Foaming agents – maintain uniform aeration of gases in foods.
- Mineral salts – enhance flavour.
- Preservatives – stop microbes from multiplying and spoiling the food.
- Thickeners and vegetable gums – enhance texture
- Stabilisers and firming agents – maintain even food dispersion.
- Flour treatment – improves baking
- Glazing agent – improves appearance and can protect food.
- Gelling agents – alter the texture of foods through gel formation.
- Propellants – help propel food from a container.
- Raising agents – increase the volume of food through the use of gases.
- Bulking agents – increase the volume of food without major changes to its available energy.
Food additives serve five fundamental capacities.
- Give the food a smooth and predictable composition:
- Emulsifiers keep fluid items from isolating.
- Stabilizers and thickeners give an even surface.
- Anticaking operators permit substances to stream unreservedly.
- Enhance or protect the supplement esteem:
- Numerous food and beverages are invigorated and advanced to give vitamins, minerals, and different supplements. Illustrations of ordinarily strengthened nourishments are flour, grain, margarine, and milk. This makes up for vitamins or minerals that might be low or ailing in a man’s eating routine.
- All items that contain included supplements must be named.
- Keep up the wholesomeness of nourishments:
- Microscopic organisms and different germs can bring about food borne diseases. Additives diminish the waste that these germs can bring about.
- Certain additives save the flavor in prepared merchandise by keeping the fats and oils from turning sour.
- Additives likewise keep new natural products from turning chestnut when they are presented to the air.
- Control the corrosive base equalization of nourishments and give raising:
- Certain additives change the corrosive base equalization of nourishments to get a specific flavor or shading.
- Raising operators that discharge acids when they are warmed respond with preparing pop to offer bread rolls, some assistance with caking, and other heated merchandise rise.
- Give shading and upgrade flavour:
- Certain hues enhance the presence of food.
- Numerous flavors, and additionally characteristic and man-made flavors, draw out the essence of food (Luke, 1995).
FOOD ADDITIVES SIDE EFFECTS
Most worries about food additives need to do with man-made fixings that are added to food.
Some of these are:
- Anti-infection agents given to food producing animals, for example, chickens and cows
- Cancer prevention agents in sleek or greasy food
- Artificial sweeteners, for example, aspartame, saccharine, and sodium cyclamate
- Benzoic corrosive in natural product juices
- Lecithin, gelatins, corn starch, waxes, gums, and propylene glycol in food stabilizers and emulsifiers
- A wide range of colours and colouring substances
- Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
- Nitrates and nitrites in sausage and other prepared meat items (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1993).
Diagnosing Food Additives affectability
In the event that you think you might have a food additive affectability, it’s essential to look for expert help since the majority of the manifestations you might be encountering can likewise be brought on by different issue. It might keep a food journal and note painstakingly any unfriendly responses. On account of an affectability being recognized, the typical practice is to wipe out every suspected food from the eating regimen and after that reintroduce them one by one to see which added substance or added substances causes the response. This ought to just be done under medicinal supervision, since a percentage of the responses –, for example, asthma (Downs, 2008).
For further reading on this important subject check out this article written by Mike Geary, a certified Nutritionist Expert:-
IFIC. Food Additives Nutrition – Nutrition, Function, Side Effects – NY Times Health Information. Available from: http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/nutrition/food-additives/overview.html
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (1993). Everything Added to Food in the United States. Boca Raton
Fennema, Owen R. (1996). Food chemistry. New York, N.Y: Marcel Dekker. p. 827.
Martin Downs, MPH (2008). “The Truth About 7 Common Food Additives”
McCann, D; Barrett, A; Cooper, A; Crumpler, D; Dalen, L; Grimshaw, K; Kitchin, E; Lok, K; et al. (2007). “Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial”. Lancet 370 (9598): 1560–7.
Luke, B.(1995). Nutrition applied to injury rehabilitation and sports medicine. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 151.